NEW YORK — An awkward job interview question — how much did you make at your last job? — is coming under fire in some parts of the United States.

Massachusetts, New York City and Philadelphia have passed laws that bar employers from asking applicants about their salary history. And several states, including California, Mississippi and Pennsylvania, have proposed similar legislation this year.

Supporters say the bans are one way to help close the wage gap between men and women. Some business advocates, however, say the bans hurt companies that use salary histories to help them set wages.

Either way, employment lawyers say the bans may spread.

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“I would not be surprised if we see other states and cities consider it,” says Christine Hendrickson, an employment lawyer at Seyfarth Shaw in Chicago.

Here are a few answers to key questions about the laws:

When do the laws take effect?

Massachusetts’ law is to go into effect in July of 2018. New York City’s ban takes effect in November. Philadelphia’s ban was to go into effect May 23, but a judge has temporarily halted it after the city’s Chamber of Commerce filed a lawsuit opposing it.

What do they ban?

The laws block employers from asking applicants about salary history in interviews or on applications. Job applicants can still provide their past pay on their own. And employers may ask applicants what salary range they expect in the role, says Regina E. Faul, an employment lawyer and partner at Phillips Nizer in New York.

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Why ban it?

Lawmakers say asking about salary history continues the cycle of pay inequality, keeping a woman from getting higher pay at a new job if she reveals her past salary.

Letitia James, who authored New York’s law and is the city’s public advocate, said the ban ensures that “being underpaid once does not condemn anyone to a lifetime of inequity.”

What happens if an employer asks about salary history?

Job applicants can report those employers, who may face fines or even jail time. In New York, the fine can be as much as $250,000. In Philadelphia, it’s $2,000 per violation, plus 90 days in jail for repeat offences.

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What has the response been from the business community?

The Chamber of Commerce of Greater Philadelphia, which represents about 600,000 businesses, sued the city over the ban last month, arguing that it violates employers’ free speech rights and makes it harder for companies to set wages and attract top talent. The lawsuit says employers use wage history to identify which job applicants they can or can’t afford and to figure out what the comparable salary is for a certain job.

Which other locations are considering bans?

This year, at least 21 states and Washington, D.C., have proposed legislation that would prohibit salary history questions, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. The states are: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Maryland, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Virginia, Vermont and Washington.

Others may join in. “There’s probably going to be a trend toward this,” says Faul.

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Copyright © 2017 Transcontinental Media G.P. Originally published on

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